By 1912, as we have seen, IQ testing at Ellis Island was being used to screen out “defectives” among incoming immigrants. Then, in 1917, as the United States prepared to enter into the First World War, eugenic practices received further government sanction. Headed by the Harvard psychology professor Robert M. Yerkes, an illustrious group of eugenicist testing experts gathered at Henry Goddard’s Vineland facility to devise an IQ test to be given to all new recruits. […]

If taken as gospel, the results of the Army testing offered a troubling snapshot of the intelligence level of the nation overall. Among new recruits, the test revealed, nearly half qualified as “morons.”

Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality. Ewen and Ewen. pg. 301-02.